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Dort gelten Notstandsgesetze. In einzelnen Distrikten, insbesondere an der Grenze zu Malaysia, kann es auch kurzfristig zur Verhängung von nächtlichen. Und auch bei kleinen Drogenmengen sind die Strafen extrem hart und nach Jahren in einem Thaigefängnis als Nicht-Thai ist das Leben vorbei. Man sollte. Inoffizielle Übersetzung der interimistischen Verfassung Thailands vom Juli Constitution of the Kingdom of Thailand (Nationales Gesetz, Englisch). Einige Urlaubsinfos für Unterwegs. Kleidung für Thailand. Kleidung für den Thailandurlaub. Verhalten im Thailand Urlaub. Jedes Land auf der Welt hat seine speziellen Eigenheiten, absoluten Tabus, ungewöhnliche Rituale, besondere Umgangsformen –.
Hohes Sicherheitsrisiko (Sicherheitsstufe 4) im Zusammenhang mit der Ausbreitung des Coronavirus (COVID). Mit anhaltenden. Einige Urlaubsinfos für Unterwegs. Kleidung für Thailand. Kleidung für den Thailandurlaub. Dort gelten Notstandsgesetze. In einzelnen Distrikten, insbesondere an der Grenze zu Malaysia, kann es auch kurzfristig zur Verhängung von nächtlichen.
Thailand Gesetze VideoI Moved From Europe To Thailand
Boonma Poltee Shareholder. Vakant Secretary. Unter anderem bieten wir in den folgenden Bereichen unsere Dienstleistung an: Marketing - wie erreicht man Europa, Amerika und den Rest der Welt?
Sales - über welche Kanäle verkaufen sich die Zimmer am Besten? Human Resources - wie bildet man die Mitarbeitenden richtig aus? Quality Management - wie kombiniert man "Thai Smile" und "Swissness"?
Individuelle Lösung - wo können wir helfen? Announcement prohibits foreigners from holding certain professions which are reserved for Thai nationals.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. National Assembly. Judiciary Law. Election Commission Recent elections General: Senate: Administrative divisions.
Changwat provinces Bangkok Metropolitan Administration Thesaban municipalities. Foreign relations. Related topics.
Southern insurgency political crisis political protests military crackdown —14 political crisis National Council for Peace and Order.
Other countries. Main article: Sources of law. Further information: Copyright law in Thailand. Thailand portal Law portal. Law of Thailand.
World Factbook. Retrieved Masao, D. Retrieved January 28, Such was also the conclusion arrived at by the author of the present article in a paper read before the Siam Society of Bangkok in , in which he endeavoured to show by textual comparisons that ancient Siamese laws were derived from the Manuic laws of India.
Thailand Legal Basics. Thailand Law Reform Commission. June—July Archived from the original PDF on Archived from the original on Hauser Global Law School Program.
Supreme Court Opinions. Thailand Law Forum. Constitutional Court. Prachatai English. Retrieved 22 November Thailand Law Online.
The Narcotics Act BE Office of the Narcotics Control Board. Thai Traditions. United Press International. Thai Legislation.
Allerdings gelten bei aller Gastfreundschaft für Ausländer einige Sonderregelungen, die den Aufenthalt prägen und unbedingt beachtet werden sollten.
Zusammen mit Einflüssen aus dem Gewohnheitsrecht bestehen die Gesetze in Thailand auf umfassenden Gesetzessammlungen mit zum Teil schon sehr langer Historie.
Diese beinhalten jeweils ein Rechtsgebiet wie Vertragsrecht und Familienrecht. Sie regeln das Zivilrecht zusammen mit weiteren ergänzenden Vorschriften und Richtlinien.
Für Ausländer halten die Gesetze in Thailand zusätzlich noch Vorschriften bereit, die unter anderem den Erwerb von Land, die Arbeitserlaubnis oder Aufenthaltserlaubnis allgemein betreffen.
Es ist anzuraten, sich damit auseinanderzusetzen, um Probleme beim Aufenthalt zu vermeiden. Dies betrifft insbesondere die Vorschriften zum Fahren unter Einfluss, die im Bereich von Touristenzentren und zur Hauptreisezeit deutlich häufiger als sonst kontrolliert werden.
Bis zu einem Frist von 12 Monaten erlauben die Gesetze in Thailand, dass der internationale Führerschein mitgeführt werden muss. Wer sich länger in Thailand aufhält, muss den bisherigen Führerschein umschreiben lassen.
Gehen Sie davon aus, dass die notwendigen Formulare dafür nur in der Landessprache verfügbar sind und nehmen für diese persönlich zu erledigende Beantragung jemanden mit, der für Sie übersetzt.
Aufgrund der Gesetze in Thailand ist es für einen Ausländer im Grund nur unter sehr erschwerten Bedingungen möglich, Eigentum zu erwerben.
Versuchen Sie es ohne entsprechende Hilfe also besser gar nicht erst, um Ihre Nerven und den Geldbeutel zu schonen.
Gemeint ist hier der legale Erwerb auf den eigenen Namen und nicht eine der so zahlreich hinter vorgehaltener Hand angebotenen Alternativen.
Die Gesetze in Thailand schützen Sie nicht, wenn Sie sich darauf einlassen. Eine legale Alternative, die auch die Gesetze in Thailand respektieren, ist die langfristige Miete mit Verlängerungsoption.Es ist strittig, ob der durch das Gesetz zu regelnde Schadensbegriff nur Serienjunkis oder auch indirekte Schäden erfassen soll und ob auch Angehörige von Geschädigten eigene Ansprüche gelten machen können. Antragstelle nur für Kinderpässe, Notpässe und Personalausweise. Touristen sollten zum Schutz der Tiere sämtliche Veranstaltungen mit Tieren meiden. Alle zulassen. In die Regierungsperioden dieser Militärregierungen fielen dennoch wichtige Wirtschaftsreformen und die Beste Spielothek in Landsthal finden der Beziehungen zu den kommunistischen Thailand Gesetze Kambodscha, Laos und Vietnam. Eine unserer beliebtesten Reisen. Weitere in Gras Dealer vorkommende Wasserbewohner sind Krokodilevor allem das Leistenkrokodildas mittlerweile fast ausgestorbene Siam-Krokodilder wahrscheinlich bereits ausgestorbene  Sunda-Gavial und verschiedene Schildkrötenartendie Unechte Karettschildkröte und Landschildkröten. Eine sorgenfreie luxuriöse Reise durch die Kultur des Königreichs. Recht in Thailand: Das thailändische Arzthaftungsgesetz. Die thailändische Regierung diskutiert derzeit ein neues Gesetz, um Patienten im Falle von. Hohes Sicherheitsrisiko (Sicherheitsstufe 4) im Zusammenhang mit der Ausbreitung des Coronavirus (COVID). Mit anhaltenden. Verschiedene Gesetze, wie das Verleumdungsgesetz, können auf als verletzend empfundene Kritik aktiviert werden und langwierige Gerichtsverfahren auslösen. Wer in Thailand Ärger vermeiden und nicht mit dem Gesetz in Konflikt geraten möchte, sollte in seinem Urlaub diese 12 Dinge besser bleiben. Thailand (thailändisch ประเทศไทย [pratʰêːt tʰaj]), offiziell Königreich Thailand (Audio-Datei / Das Gesetz gegen Computerkriminalität ermöglicht eine kontinuierliche Überwachung und Kontrolle der sozialen Medien und die Inhaftierung.
Regional co-operation is progressing in economic, trade, banking, political, and cultural matters.
In Thailand attended the inaugural East Asia Summit. In recent years, Thailand has taken an increasingly active role on the international stage.
When East Timor gained independence from Indonesia, Thailand, for the first time in its history, contributed troops to the international peacekeeping effort.
Its troops remain there today as part of a UN peacekeeping force. Thailand has contributed troops to reconstruction efforts in Afghanistan and Iraq.
The latter especially was criticised, with claims that uncompetitive Thai industries could be wiped out. Thaksin also announced that Thailand would forsake foreign aid, and work with donor countries to assist in the development of neighbours in the Greater Mekong Sub-region.
More controversially, he established close, friendly ties with the Burmese dictatorship. Thailand joined the US-led invasion of Iraq , sending a strong humanitarian contingent.
Two Thai soldiers died in Iraq in an insurgent attack. In April , fighting broke out between Thai and Cambodian troops on territory immediately adjacent to the year-old ruins of Cambodia's Preah Vihear Hindu temple near the border.
The Cambodian government claimed its army had killed at least four Thais and captured 10 more, although the Thai government denied that any Thai soldiers were killed or injured.
Two Cambodian and three Thai soldiers were killed. Both armies blamed the other for firing first and denied entering the other's territory. It also incorporates various paramilitary forces.
The Thai Armed Forces have a combined manpower of , active duty personnel and another , active reserve personnel.
The armed forces are managed by the Ministry of Defence of Thailand , which is headed by the Minister of Defence a member of the cabinet of Thailand and commanded by the Royal Thai Armed Forces Headquarters , which in turn is headed by the Chief of Defence Forces of Thailand.
The military is also tasked with humanitarian missions, such as escorting Rohingya to Malaysia or Indonesia,  ensuring security and welfare for refugees during Indochina refugee crisis.
According to the constitution, serving in the armed forces is a duty of all Thai citizens. They are subjected to varying lengths of active service depending on the duration of reserve training as Territorial Defence Student and their level of education.
Those who have completed three years or more of reserve training will be exempted entirely. The practice has long been criticized, as some media question its efficacy and value.
Critics observed that Thai military's main objective is to deal with internal rather than external threats.
It also has anti-democracy mission. Most recently, the appointed senators include more than active and retired military. In the literacy rate was The youth literacy rate was The private sector of education is well developed and significantly contributes to the overall provision of education which the government would not be able to meet with public establishments.
Education is compulsory up to and including age 14, with the government providing free education through to age Thailand is the 3rd most popular study destination in Asean.
The most of international students come from Asian neighbor countries  from China, Myanmar, Cambodia and Vietnam. Teaching relies heavily on rote learning rather than on student-centred methodology.
The establishment of reliable and coherent curricula for its primary and secondary schools is subject to such rapid changes that schools and their teachers are not always sure what they are supposed to be teaching, and authors and publishers of textbooks are unable to write and print new editions quickly enough to keep up with the volatility.
Issues concerning university entrance has been in constant upheaval for a number of years. Nevertheless, Thai education has seen its greatest progress in the years since Most of the present generation of students are computer literate.
Thailand was ranked 74th out of countries globally for English proficiency. Students in ethnic minority areas score consistently lower in standardised national and international tests.
Extensive nationwide IQ tests were administered to 72, Thai students from December to January The average IQ was found to be IQ levels were found to be inconsistent throughout the country, with the lowest average of The Ministry of Public Health blames the discrepancies on iodine deficiency , and as of [update] steps were being taken to require that iodine be added to table salt , a practice common in many Western countries.
In , the Ministry of Information and Communication Technology announced that 27, schools would receive classroom-level access to high-speed internet.
In modern times, Thai scientists have made many significant contributions in various fields of study. For example, In chemistry , Krisana Kraisintu as known as the "Gypsy pharmacist ".
Thailand has also made significant advances technology in the development of Medical Robotics. Medical robots have been used and promoted in Thailand in many areas, including surgery , diagnosis , rehabilitation and services.
Thailand is an emerging economy and is considered a newly industrialised country. Thailand ranks midway in the wealth spread in Southeast Asia as it is the 4th richest nation according to GDP per capita, after Singapore, Brunei, and Malaysia.
Thailand functions as an anchor economy for the neighbouring developing economies of Laos, Myanmar, and Cambodia.
In the third quarter of , the unemployment rate in Thailand stood at 0. Thailand experienced the world's highest economic growth rate from to — averaging In increased pressure on the baht , a year in which the economy contracted by 1.
Prime Minister Chavalit Yongchaiyudh was forced to resign after his cabinet came under fire for its slow response to the economic crisis. The baht was pegged at 25 to the US dollar from to The baht reached its lowest point of 56 to the US dollar in January and the economy contracted by Thailand's economy started to recover in , expanding 4.
Growth 2. Due both to the weakening of the US dollar and an increasingly strong Thai currency, by March the dollar was hovering around the 33 baht mark.
Political uncertainty was identified as the primary cause of a decline in investor and consumer confidence. The IMF predicted that the Thai economy would rebound strongly from the low 0.
Following the Thai military coup of 22 May In , Concluded with information on the Thai economy's grew an inflation-adjusted 3.
In , Credit Suisse reported that Thailand was the world's third most unequal country, behind Russia and India. In , 5. The economy of Thailand is heavily export-dependent, with exports accounting for more than two-thirds of gross domestic product GDP.
Substantial industries include electric appliances, components, computer components, and vehicles. Thailand's recovery from the — Asian financial crisis depended mainly on exports, among various other factors.
As of [update] , the Thai automotive industry was the largest in Southeast Asia and the 9th largest in the world. Most of the vehicles built in Thailand are developed and licensed by foreign producers, mainly Japanese and American.
Thailand was the most visited country in Southeast Asia in , according to the World Tourism Organisation.
Estimates of tourism receipts directly contributing to the Thai GDP of 12 trillion baht range from 9 percent 1 trillion baht to 16 percent.
Asian tourists primarily visit Thailand for Bangkok and the historical, natural, and cultural sights in its vicinity.
Western tourists not only visit Bangkok and surroundings, but in addition many travel to the southern beaches and islands. The north is the chief destination for trekking and adventure travel with its diverse ethnic minority groups and forested mountains.
The region hosting the fewest tourists is Isan. To accommodate foreign visitors, a separate tourism police with offices were set up in the major tourist areas and an emergency telephone number.
Thailand ranks 5th biggest medical tourism destination of inbound medical tourism spending, according to World Travel and Tourism Council , attracting over 2.
Prostitution in Thailand and sex tourism also form a de facto part of the economy. Campaigns promote Thailand as exotic to attract tourists.
Forty-nine per cent of Thailand's labour force is employed in agriculture. Agriculture has been experiencing a transition from labour-intensive and transitional methods to a more industrialised and competitive sector.
Furthermore, access to biocapacity in Thailand is lower than world average. In , Thailand had 1. This means they use about twice as much biocapacity as Thailand contains.
As a result, Thailand is running a biocapacity deficit. There are also three rapid transit rail systems in the capital.
As of [update] Thailand has 37 million registered vehicles, 20 million of them motorbikes. A number of undivided two-lane highways have been converted into divided four-lane highways.
There are 4, public vans operating on routes from Bangkok alone. As of , Thailand had airports with 63 paved runways, in addition to 6 heliports.
The busiest airport in the county is Bangkok's Suvarnabhumi Airport. Thailand produces roughly one-third of the oil it consumes.
It is the second largest importer of oil in SE Asia. Thailand is a large producer of natural gas, with reserves of at least 10 trillion cubic feet.
After Indonesia, it is the largest coal producer in SE Asia, but must import additional coal to meet domestic demand. Thailand has a diverse and robust informal labour sector—in , it was estimated that informal workers comprised The Ministry of Labour defines informal workers to be individuals who work in informal economies and do not have employee status under a given country's Labour Protection Act LPA.
The informal sector in Thailand has grown significantly over the past 60 years over the course of Thailand's gradual transition from an agriculture-based economy to becoming more industrialised and service-oriented.
It is estimated that between and , the number of factory workers in the country doubled from two to four million, as Thailand's GDP tripled. These reforms implemented an agenda of increased privatisation and trade liberalisation in the country, and decreased federal subsidisation of public goods and utilities, agricultural price supports, and regulations on fair wages and labour conditions.
Many migrant farmers found work in Thailand's growing manufacturing industry, and took jobs in sweatshops and factories with few labour regulations and often exploitative conditions.
Those that could not find formal factory work, including illegal migrants and the families of rural Thai migrants that followed their relatives to the urban centres, turned to the informal sector to provide the extra support needed for survival—under the widespread regulation imposed by the structural adjustment programs, one family member working in a factory or sweatshop made very little.
Scholars argue that the economic consequences and social costs of Thailand's labour reforms in the wake of the Asian Financial Crisis fell on individuals and families rather than the state.
This can be described as the "externalisation of market risk", meaning that as the country's labour market became increasingly deregulated, the burden and responsibility of providing an adequate livelihood shifted from employers and the state to the workers themselves, whose families had to find jobs in the informal sector to make up for the losses and subsidise the wages being made by their relatives in the formal sector.
The weight of these economic changes hit migrants and the urban poor especially hard, and the informal sector expanded rapidly as a result.
Not included in these categories are those that work in entertainment, nightlife, and the sex industry.
Individuals employed in these facets of the informal labour sector face additional vulnerabilities, including recruitment into circles of sexual exploitation and human trafficking.
In general, education levels are low in the informal sector. Many informal workers are also migrants, only some of which have legal status in the country.
Education and citizenship are two main barriers to entry for those looking to work in formal industries, and enjoy the labour protections and social security benefits that come along with formal employment.
Because the informal labour sector is not recognised under the Labour Protection Act LPA , informal workers are much more vulnerable labour to exploitation and unsafe working conditions than those employed in more formal and federally recognised industries.
While some Thai labour laws provide minimal protections to domestic and agricultural workers, they are often weak and difficult to enforce.
Furthermore, Thai social security policies fail to protect against the risks many informal workers face, including workplace accidents and compensation as well as unemployment and retirement insurance.
Many informal workers are not legally contracted for their employment, and many do not make a living wage.
Thailand had a population of 66,, as of About Thailand's government-sponsored family planning program resulted in a dramatic decline in population growth from 3.
In , an average of 5. At the time of the census, the average Thai household size was 3. Thai nationals make up the majority of Thailand's population, The remaining 4.
Twenty million Central Thai together with approximately , Khorat Thai make up approximately 20,, The Thailand Country Report provides population numbers for mountain peoples 'hill tribes' and ethnic communities in the Northeast and is explicit about its main reliance on the Mahidol University Ethnolinguistic Maps of Thailand data.
In descending order, the largest equal to or greater than , are a 15,, Lao Increasing numbers of migrants from neighbouring Myanmar, Laos, and Cambodia, as well as from Nepal and India, have pushed the total number of non-national residents to around 3.
The official language of Thailand is Thai , a Kra—Dai language closely related to Lao , Shan in Myanmar, and numerous smaller languages spoken in an arc from Hainan and Yunnan south to the Chinese border.
It is the principal language of education and government and spoken throughout the country. The standard is based on the dialect of the central Thai people, and it is written in the Thai alphabet , an abugida script that evolved from the Khmer alphabet.
For the purposes of the national census, which does not recognise all 62 languages recognised by the Royal Thai Government in the Country Report, four dialects of Thai exist; these partly coincide with regional designations.
The largest of Thailand's minority languages is the Lao dialect of Isan spoken in the northeastern provinces. Although sometimes considered a Thai dialect, it is a Lao dialect, and the region where it is traditionally spoken was historically part of the Lao kingdom of Lan Xang.
Varieties of Chinese are also spoken by the large Thai Chinese population, with the Teochew dialect best-represented. Hmong is a member of the Hmong—Mien languages , which is now regarded as a language family of its own.
English is a mandatory school subject, but the number of fluent speakers remains low, especially outside cities.
Thailand's prevalent religion is Theravada Buddhism , which is an integral part of Thai identity and culture. Active participation in Buddhism is among the highest in the world.
According to the census, Muslims constitute the second largest religious group in Thailand, comprising 4. Islam is concentrated mostly in the country's southernmost provinces: Pattani , Yala , Satun , Narathiwat , and part of Songkhla Chumphon , which are predominantly Malay , most of whom are Sunni Muslims.
Christians represented 1. There is also a small but historically significant Jewish community in Thailand dating back to the 17th century. The constitution does not name official state religion, and provides for freedom of religion.
Even the authority formally does not register new religious groups that have not been accepted and limit the number of missionaries, unregistered religious organisations as well as missionaries who are allowed to operate freely.
There have been no widespread reports of societal abuses or discrimination based on religious belief or practice.
Thailand ranks world's 6th, and Asia's 1st in the Global Health Security Index of global health security capabilities in countries,  making it the only developing country on the world's top ten.
Thailand had 62 hospitals accredited by Joint Commission International. Health and medical care is overseen by the Ministry of Public Health MOPH , along with several other non-ministerial government agencies, with total national expenditures on health amounting to 4.
Non-communicable diseases form the major burden of morbidity and mortality, while infectious diseases including malaria and tuberculosis, as well as traffic accidents, are also important public health issues.
In December the interim parliament voted to legalise the use of cannabis for medical reasons. Recreational use remained unlawful.
The National Legislative Assembly had votes in favour of the amendment to the Narcotics Bill, while there were no nay votes and 13 abstentions.
The vote makes Thailand the first Southeast Asian country to allow the use of medical cannabis. Thai culture and traditions incorporate a great deal of influence from India, China, Cambodia, and the rest of Southeast Asia.
Thailand's national religion, Theravada Buddhism, is central to modern Thai identity. Thai Buddhism has evolved over time to include many regional beliefs originating from Hinduism , animism , as well as ancestor worship.
Thai identity today is a social construct of Phibun regime in s. Several ethnic groups mediated change between their traditional local culture, national Thai, and global cultural influences.
Overseas Chinese also form a significant part of Thai society, particularly in and around Bangkok. Their successful integration into Thai society has allowed them to hold positions of economic and political power.
Thai Chinese businesses prosper as part of the larger bamboo network. Wai is traditional Thai greeting, and is generally offered first by person who is younger or lower in social status and position.
Respects for elderly by age, position, monks, or certain professions is Thai mores. As with other Asian cultures, respect towards ancestors is an essential part of Thai spiritual practice.
Thais have strong sense of social hierarchy, reflecting in many classes of honorifics. Seniority is paramount in Thai culture.
Elders have by tradition ruled in family decisions or ceremonies. Older siblings have duties to younger ones. Taboos in Thailand include touching someone's head or pointing with the feet, as the head is considered the most sacred and the foot the lowest part of the body.
The origins of Thai art were very much influenced by Buddhist art and by scenes from the Indian epics. Traditional Thai sculpture almost exclusively depicts images of the Buddha , being very similar with the other styles from Southeast Asia.
Traditional Thai paintings usually consist of book illustrations, and painted ornamentation of buildings such as palaces and temples.
Thai art was influenced by indigenous civilisations of the Mon and other civilisations. By the Sukothai and Ayutthaya period, thai had developed into its own unique style and was later further influenced by the other Asian styles, mostly by Sri Lankan and Chinese.
Thai sculpture and painting, and the royal courts provided patronage, erecting temples and other religious shrines as acts of merit or to commemorate important events.
Traditional Thai paintings showed subjects in two dimensions without perspective. The size of each element in the picture reflected its degree of importance.
The primary technique of composition is that of apportioning areas: the main elements are isolated from each other by space transformers.
This eliminated the intermediate ground, which would otherwise imply perspective. Perspective was introduced only as a result of Western influence in the midth century.
Monk artist Khrua In Khong is well known as the first artist to introduce linear perspective to Thai traditional art.
The most frequent narrative subjects for paintings were or are: the Jataka stories, episodes from the life of the Buddha , the Buddhist heavens and hells , themes derived from the Thai versions of the Ramayana and Mahabharata, not to mention scenes of daily life.
Some of the scenes are influenced by Thai folklore instead of following strict Buddhist iconography. Architecture is the preeminent medium of the country's cultural legacy and reflects both the challenges of living in Thailand's sometimes extreme climate as well as, historically, the importance of architecture to the Thai people's sense of community and religious beliefs.
Influenced by the architectural traditions of many of Thailand's neighbours, it has also developed significant regional variation within its vernacular and religious buildings.
The Ayutthaya Kingdom movement, which went from approximately to , was one of the most fruitful and creative periods in Thai architecture The identity of architecture in Ayutthaya period is designed to display might and riches so it has great size and appearance.
The temples in Ayutthaya seldom built eaves stretching from the masterhead. The dominant feature of this style is sunlight shining into buildings.
During the latter part of the Ayutthaya period, architecture was regarded as a peak achievement that responded to the requirements of people and expressed the gracefulness of Thainess.
A temple has an enclosing wall that divides it from the secular world. Wat architecture has seen many changes in Thailand in the course of history.
Although there are many differences in layout and style, they all adhere to the same principles. Thai literature has had a long history.
Even before the establishment of the Sukhothai Kingdom there existed oral and written works. During the Sukhothai , Most literary works were written in simple prose with certain alliteration schemes.
Major works include King Ram Khamhaeng Inscription. It gives an account of the life of King Ramkhamhaeng the Great, the way of life of Thai people in general, laws, religion, economic and political stability.
It expounds Buddhist philosophy based on a profound and extensive study with reference to over 30 sacred texts. The work could be considered the nation's first piece of research dissertation.
It was written in beautiful prose rich in allusions and imagery. It is a treatise on Buddhist cosmology, ethics, biology and belief system.
During the Ayutthaya , The period produced a variety of forms on diverse subjects. New poetic forms were created, with different rhyme schemes and metres.
It is common to find a combination of different poetic forms in one poetic work. One of the most beautiful literary works is Kap He Ruea composed by Prince Thammathibet comparing the scenic beauty to that of his beloved lady on a boat journey in the nirat tradition.
Traditionally, the verse is sung during the colourful royal barge procession. It has been the model for subsequent poets to emulate.
Despite its short period of 15 years, Thon Buri Period produced Ramakian , a verse drama to which King Taksin the Great contributed his poetic talent.
The revival of literature at this time is remarkable since the country had not quite recovered from the aftermath of war. Some poets who later became a major force in the early Rattanakosin Period had already begun writing at this time.
During the 18th century Rattanakosin Period. After sporadic fighting at the beginning of the period, the country gradually returned to normal.
It is only natural that many of the early Rattanakosin works should deal with war and military strategy. In the performing arts, perhaps the most important dramatic achievement is the complete work of Ramakian by King Rama I.
In addition, There were also verse recitals with musical accompaniment, such as Mahori telling the story of Kaki , Sepha relating the story of Khun Chang Khun Phaen.
Other recitals include Sri Thanonchai. Aside from folk and regional dances southern Thailand's Menora dance and Ramwong , for example , the two major forms of Thai classical dance drama are Khon and Lakhon nai.
In the beginning, both were exclusively court entertainments and it was not until much later that a popular style of dance theatre, likay , evolved as a diversion for common folk who had no access to royal performances.
Folk dance forms include dance theater forms like likay , numerous regional dances ram , the ritual dance ram muay , and homage to the teacher, wai khru.
Both ram muay and wai khru take place before all traditional muay Thai matches. The wai is also an annual ceremony performed by Thai classical dance groups to honor their artistic ancestors.
Thai classical music is synonymous with those stylized court ensembles and repertoires that emerged in their present form within the royal centers of Central Thailand some years ago.
These ensembles, while being influenced by older practices are today uniquely Thai expressions. While the three primary classical ensembles, the Piphat , Khrueang sai and Mahori differ in significant ways, they all share a basic instrumentation and theoretical approach.
Each employs small ching hand cymbals and krap wooden sticks to mark the primary beat reference. Thai classical music has had a wide influence on the musical traditions of neighboring countries.
As Siam expanded its political and cultural influence to Laos and Cambodia during the early Rattanakosin period, its music was quickly absorbed by the Cambodia and Lao courts.
Thai films are exported and exhibited in Southeast Asia. Thai horror has always had a significant cult following, unique take on tales from beyond the grave.
More recently, horror films such as Shutter , was one of the best-known Thai horror movies and recognized worldwide. Thailand television dramas, known as Lakorn , Lakorn have become popular in Thailand and its neighbors.
They also directly supported 86, jobs. Thai cuisine is one of the most popular in the world. The herbs and spices most used in Thai cooking themselves have medicinal qualities such as garlic , lemongrass , Kaffir lime , galangal , turmeric , coriander , coconut milk.
Thailand had more dishes on the list than any other country. They were: tom yam goong 4th , pad Thai 5th , som tam 6th , Massaman curry 10th , green curry 19th , Thai fried rice 24th and mu nam tok 36th.
The staple food in Thailand is rice, particularly jasmine rice also known as hom Mali which forms part of almost every meal. Thailand generally uses the metric system , but traditional units of measurement for land area are used, and imperial units of measurement are occasionally used for building materials, such as wood and plumbing fixtures.
Years are numbered as B. Buddhist Era in educational settings, civil service, government, contracts, and newspaper datelines. However, in banking, and increasingly in industry and commerce, standard Western year Christian or Common Era counting is the standard practice.
Muay Thai became widespread internationally in the lateth to 21st century, when Westernized practitioners from Thailand began competing in kickboxing and mixed rules matches as well as matches under muay Thai rules around the world, Famous practitioners such as Buakaw Banchamek , Samart Payakaroon , Dieselnoi Chor Thanasukarn and Apidej Sit-Hirun.
Buakaw Banchamek has probably brought more international interest in Muay Thai than any other Muay Thai fighters ever had.
Association football has overtaken muay Thai as the most widely followed sport in contemporary Thai society.
Thailand national football team has played the AFC Asian Cup six times and reached the semifinals in The country has hosted the Asian Cup twice, in and in The edition was co-hosted together with Indonesia , Malaysia and Vietnam.
It is not uncommon to see Thais cheering their favourite English Premier League teams on television and walking around in replica kit.
Another widely enjoyed pastime, and once a competitive sport, is kite flying. Volleyball is rapidly growing as one of the most popular sports. They have won the Asian Championship twice and Asian Cup once.
By the success of the women's team, the men team has been growing as well. Sepak takraw is a form of this sport which is similar to volleyball.
The players must volley a ball over a net and force it to hit the ground on the opponent's side. It is also a popular sport in other countries in Southeast Asia.
A rather similar game but played only with the feet is buka ball. Snooker has enjoyed increasing popularity in Thailand in recent years, with interest in the game being stimulated by the success of Thai snooker player James Wattana in the s.
Rugby is also a growing sport in Thailand with the Thailand national rugby union team rising to be ranked 61st in the world. Thailand has been called the golf capital of Asia  as it is a popular destination for golf.
The country attracts a large number of golfers from Japan, Korea, Singapore, South Africa, and Western countries who come to play golf in Thailand every year.
Basketball is a growing sport in Thailand, especially on the professional sports club level. Other sports in Thailand are slowly growing as the country develops its sporting infrastructure.
The success in sports like weightlifting and taekwondo at the last two summer Olympic Games has demonstrated that boxing is no longer the only medal option for Thailand.
Managed by the Royal Thai Army, the stadium was officially selected for the purpose of muay Thai bouts following a competition that was staged on 15 March From 11 February , the stadium will relocate to Ram Intra Road, due to the new venue's capacity to accommodate audiences of up to 3, Foreigners typically pay between 1,—2, baht to view a match, with prices depending on the location of the seating.
Thammasat Stadium is a multi-purpose stadium in Bangkok. It is currently used mostly for football matches.
The stadium holds 25, It is on Thammasat University's Rangsit campus. It was built for the Asian Games by construction firm Christiani and Nielsen, the same company that constructed the Democracy Monument in Bangkok.
Rajamangala National Stadium is the biggest sporting arena in Thailand. It currently has a capacity of 65, It is in Bang Kapi, Bangkok.
The stadium was built in for the Asian Games and is the home stadium of the Thailand national football team. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
For other uses, see Siam disambiguation. Kingdom in Southeast Asia. Show globe. Isan Kam Mueang Pak Tai. Main article: History of Thailand. Main articles: Initial states of Thailand and Sukhothai Kingdom.
Sukhothai Kingdom. Main article: Ayutthaya Kingdom. Ayutthaya Kingdom. Main article: Thonburi Kingdom.
Main article: Rattanakosin Kingdom. Rattanakosin Kingdom. Considered the sacred palladium of Thailand.
Siamese territorial concessions to Britain and France by year. Main articles: History of Thailand — and History of Thailand since See also: South Thailand insurgency.
Vajiralongkorn King since Main article: Geography of Thailand. See also: Environmental issues in Thailand. Main articles: Organization of the government of Thailand and Provinces of Thailand.
See also: Regions of Thailand. Main article: Foreign relations of Thailand. Main article: Royal Thai Armed Forces.
Main article: Education in Thailand. Main article: List of Thai inventions and discoveries. This section may be too long to read and navigate comfortably.
Please consider splitting content into sub-articles, condensing it, or adding subheadings. November Main article: Economy of Thailand.
Further information: Tourism in Thailand. Ko Ngai , Krabi. Further information: Agriculture in Thailand. Main articles: Transport in Thailand and List of airports in Thailand.
Further information: Energy in Thailand. Main article: Demographics of Thailand. Further information: Ethnic groups in Thailand. Further information: List of cities in Thailand.
Largest municipalities in Thailand See template. Main article: Languages of Thailand. The Silajaruek of Sukhothai Kingdom are hundreds of stone inscriptions that form a historical record of the period.
Main article: Religion in Thailand. Religion in Thailand  Religion Percent Buddhism. Main article: Culture of Thailand. See also: Isan.
Main article: Thai art. Main article: Architecture of Thailand. Main article: Thai literature. Main articles: Dance in Thailand and Music of Thailand.
Main articles: Cinema of Thailand and Thai television soap opera. Phanom Yeerum and Lalisa Manoban. Further information: Cuisine of Thailand.
Further information: Thai units of measurement. Thailand portal Asia portal. Retrieved 31 May Its ratification was held on 6 April Social Indicators Research.
Retrieved 6 February Archived from the original PDF on 10 December Retrieved 12 October Royal Thai Government Gazette.
Retrieved 12 June International Monetary Fund. Archived from the original on 3 February Retrieved 22 April National Economic and Social Development Board.
Archived from the original on 22 February Retrieved 21 February World Bank. Archived from the original on 4 December Retrieved 3 December United Nations Development Programme.
Retrieved 9 December Random House. Retrieved 11 January Collins English Dictionary. Archived from the original on 10 April Retrieved 25 April See Gerini, Ptolemy, p.
But Samarade is near Bangkok and there can hardly have been Thais there in Ptolemy's time, and Footnote So too in Central Asia Kustana appears to be a learned distortion of the name Khotan , made to give it a meaning in Sanskrit.
A History of Thailand. Singapore: C. S Printers Pte Ltd. Walter F. Vella ed. The Indianized States of Southeast Asia. Susan Brown Cowing.
University of Hawaii Press. Journal of the American Oriental Society. A History of Ayutthaya. Cambridge University Press.
Thailand: A Country Study. Federal Research Division, Library of Congress. Journal of World Prehistory. Retrieved 10 February — via Researchgate. History Archived 2 April at the Wayback Machine.
Thailand: A Short History. New Haven: Yale University Press. Jane Keyes, James A. Hafner; et al. Retrieved 4 April Keyes Cultural Diversity and National Identity in Thailand.
Government policies and ethnic relations in Asia and the Pacific. MIT Press. The Archaeology of Mainland Southeast Asia.
Retrieved 6 September History of Burma. Retrieved 20 November Retrieved 21 November John Crawfurd sent to Siam by the Government of India in the year ".
Journal of Southeast Asian Studies. National Archives of Singapore. The Code deals with wrongful acts: liability, compensation and exemptions to liability justifiable acts.
Land law is dealt with by the Land Code. Land in Thailand is covered by a system consisting of several title deeds offering different rights of use, possession, ownership or alienation.
Most titles are issued by the Land Department and fall within seven main categories. Another five categories are issued by other government departments for specific purposes.
The Chanote or Nor Sor 4 Jor category, found in more developed parts of Thailand, offers private ownership similar to freehold land.
Other land is considered to belong to the government or the King of Thailand. Intellectual property law, that is patents , trademarks and copyright , are protected by the Patent Act BE ,  Trademark Act BE  and the Copyright Act BE  and their amendments respectively.
A registration system exists for trademarks and patents. Copyright is automatically protected for 50 years and does not need registration, however it can be filed with the DIP.
Patent protection in Thailand aims to support innovators who introduce new proprietary technologies. A firm reaps several benefits from registering a patent.
First, the parentee gets exclusive rights to shield himself from others making, using, selling, or distributing the invention or design without permission.
Second, a granted patent increases business value. Third, a granted patent is enforceable. Patent protection helps a business gain a competitive advantage and helps it obtain a return on investment ROI to defray research and development costs.
Three types of patents can be granted: invention patents , petty patents , and design patents :. As with European patent law , Thai patent law, under Section 5 of the Patent Act as amended in , , grants patents to an invention that 1 is non-obvious involves an inventive step , 2 is novel, and 3 is capable of industrial application.
According to the Manual of Patent and Petty Patent Applications Examination, "an invention must provide a benefit or improvement in occurrence of at least one of the following: .
Computer software is unpatentable under Thai Patent law. Software is considered to be merely a set of instructions to a machine.
Software patents in Thailand have sparked software patent debates among economists and developers as there are two significant developments in international patent law: 1 the European Union's attempt to harmonize national patent laws by the Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and Council on the patentability of computer-implemented inventions, and 2 the US court decision to expand patent protection to business methods.
For example, the business method prevention has high tendency to hinder the growth in innovations especially for infant software companies.
However, Dr. Sribhibhadh, president of the Association of the Thai Software Industry, emphasized that there will need to be a clear overview of the impact on the local industry if Thailand really had to fully implement the patent right protections.
A petty patent known as a utility model in other countries can be granted if an invention does not involve an inventive step, but is capable of industrial application.
A petty patent is suitable for a new invention which would qualify for an invention patent except that it has no strong, technical innovative step.
To be more specific, petty patents have been widely used among Thai companies, especially for manufacturing companies and inventors of less complicated inventions.
This is because the petty patent has relatively simple criteria. A design patent is granted based on the ornamental aspects or aesthetics of an product, including features pertaining to its shape, configuration, or pattern.
The length of patent protection is 10 years from registration date. Unlike an invention patent, the main benefit of a design patent is the less stringent requirements as it requires only novelty and capability of industrial application.
In Thailand, design patents are popular in design-heavy industries such as car manufacturers, beverage companies, and furniture designers.
The Foreign Business Act of regulates foreign ownership of certain Thai industries and foreign companies. The Alien Business Law N.
Announcement prohibits foreigners from holding certain professions which are reserved for Thai nationals. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
National Assembly. Judiciary Law. Election Commission Recent elections General: Senate: Administrative divisions.
Changwat provinces Bangkok Metropolitan Administration Thesaban municipalities. Foreign relations. Related topics. Southern insurgency political crisis political protests military crackdown —14 political crisis National Council for Peace and Order.
Other countries. Main article: Sources of law. Further information: Copyright law in Thailand. Thailand portal Law portal. Law of Thailand. World Factbook.
Retrieved Masao, D. Retrieved January 28, Such was also the conclusion arrived at by the author of the present article in a paper read before the Siam Society of Bangkok in , in which he endeavoured to show by textual comparisons that ancient Siamese laws were derived from the Manuic laws of India.
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